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Fascist Italy had signed a treaty of friendship with Nazi Germany on 25 October 1936. However, the Italian leader, Benito Mussolini, was reluctant to establish a more formal alliance with Adolf Hitler. Therefore, when Germany and Japan established an Anti-Comintern Pact, against the Communist International, on 25 November, Italy chose not to participate. It would eventually do so on 6 November 1937.